Principles of insulation - Factors related to the choice of insulation for buildings
Thermal insulation is a solution to prevent heat loss or heat gain by creating a thermal barrier between the surfaces of a structure with a difference in temperature. Barriers that prevent heat flow from entering a building can be made from block or reflective insulation or a combination of both, done in different ways.
According to research results published in the world in non-insulated low-rise buildings, heat transfer through walls accounts for 10-30%, 10-15% through glass windows; 10-20% through the floor; 25-35% through roof and 5-25% due to air leakage. In Vietnam for tall buildings, the amount of heat transmitted through the wall 10-45%; 45-80% through glass doors; 1-5% through roof; 1-10% through the floor and 5-18% due to leakage.
1. The need for insulation
The insulation of buildings is an effective solution to contribute to the comfort and convenience of people living, working, resting as well as saving energy for ventilation and heating, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and response to climate change. The construction of insulation for roofs, walls ... helps reduce 15-25% of energy consumption for heating or cooling. Insulation efficiency also depends on a number of factors: type of insulation, thickness, manufacturer, construction quality, etc.
Insulation helps reduce heat loss or unwanted heat gain and thereby reduces the energy needs of heating and cooling systems. In a narrow sense, it is the use of insulating materials with low thermal conductivity to limit the heat transfer through the building envelope or to increase the level of reflection. Building insulation involves a range of engineering designs and solutions to address the main modes of heat transfer such as thermal conduction, convection and radiation.
Insulation can be done on the inside or outside surface of a building's enclosed wall structure. For pre-built buildings, rigid sheet materials are an appropriate option that can be used to insulate an entire house from foundation to roof. A building that is not designed for thermal insulation will result in significant heat loss in the winter and increased heat in the summer. The process of losing heat from the building to the environment and getting heat from the environment into the building is introduced simulated in Figure 1.
2. Insulation principle
Before deciding to choose insulation for a building, the following factors should be considered:
2.1 Thermal efficiency - Thermal resistance value R
When using insulation for a building, it is important to determine the thermal resistance value prescribed by the National Building Code. The thermal and thermal performance of insulating materials are very important properties that need to be considered.
2.2 Life cycle performance
The performance of insulation materials needs to be considered. Because to ensure energy-saving design of the building, it is important that the insulation is not damaged or collapsed over time to meet the life of the building.
2.3 Fire safety
Insulating materials shall be non-flammable, when tested according to applicable standards and may be placed in all types of houses or materials classified as flammable according to current standards, shall be Tested and classified according to regulations to use and apply accordingly.
The insulation loses its thermal insulation or design resistance value when exposed to moisture.
Some insulation products are impermeable or when exposed to moisture, will not hold water or may make draining water preferred.
2.5 Air leakage control
Air leaks usually occur in areas of a building that are not properly closed or insulated, such as: Locations around windows, doors, fireplaces, heating pipes Warm air conditioning ... To control air leaks, it is possible to plug gaps with appropriate solutions such as: Attaching braces, gaskets or gluing to gaps around doors, windows and other gaps.
2.6 Life cycle analysis
Life cycle analysis is an assessment of the environmental impact of a product by examining the environmental characteristics of the product in several stages including: Before production; manufacturing; distribution / packing; use; Reuse; storage and waste management. When evaluating each of these phases, the life cycle assessment identifies beneficial environmental attributes.
3.The most commonly used insulation materials today
The term "insulation" refers to materials or combinations of materials capable of preventing heat flow from the outside environment into the building or vice versa. When insulation materials are installed on a building's roof, ceiling, walls and floor, it will reduce the heat transfer from the outside environment to the building in the summer, and to the outside environment in the winter. and at the same time, reducing the need for energy used for heating and cooling buildings.
Currently, all kinds of insulation materials are interwoven together, creating products that are both highly aesthetic and have excellent thermal insulation. Some typical products are: EuroZip aluminum roof, Alubond USA composite aluminum wall panels, .... provided by European Construction System Company Limited (EuroCS).
View more: Europe Construction System Co. Ltd.