Green building - the inevitable trend of Vietnamese construction
In the context of climate change, the energy crisis, green buildings are not a specific solution for developed countries but also for developing countries to solve a range of environmental issues that are in place. on a global scale. Green building does not go against the demand of economic development and is suitable with the socio-cultural conditions of each locality, based on appropriate selection and research.
Green buildings are works that achieve high efficiency in using energy and materials, minimizing adverse impacts on the environment; At the same time, it is designed to minimize the negative impacts of the built environment on human health and the natural environment. (Definition of Vietnam Green Building Council - Vietnam Green Building Council - VGBC, 2011).
Green building has started to enter Vietnam's construction market since 2007 and received the support of both the government and the private sector. In Vietnam, one of the reasons green buildings are interested in developing, because Vietnam is one of the top countries in terms of the greatest risk of climate change in the next 30 years. If the sea level rises by 1 meter, Vietnam will lose 12% of its land use - the residence of 23% of the population. (According to World Bank - 2009 forecast). Besides, Vietnam is one of the Asian economies with the highest growth rate in the past 20 years (average 7.5%). In the past 10 years, average construction growth reached 12% and urbanization rate was 3.4% per year, expected to reach 50% by 2025. Also during this time, energy consumption level receptors have increased at a faster rate than GDP growth, averaging 14% per year. Construction works in Vietnam are using about 36% of the country's total energy consumption, an average of 33% of electricity and 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for one third of total CO2 emissions. , the main agent causing global climate change (IFC, 2015).
However, the phenomenon of "green" and "eco"-labeled constructions aims to be more and more advertised. These works do not have data to substantiate the contribution to the social environment. Surveying these self-labeled "green" constructions can be seen only at the outer surface, abusing greenery on the front, building roofs without proper maintenance and operation plans. . Some other works have not really paid attention to the rationality of microclimate organization, functional organization to optimize ventilation and natural lighting. Using the lack of research cubes that are inconsistent with Vietnam's cultural, social, natural, and environmental conditions, lack of knowledge of heat radiation, the directions have many windows turning directly toward Major sunshine is expensive for the project. Many of the "green" self-constructions have abused the use of expensive materials and equipment imported from abroad with investment and maintenance costs - operating large or using glass wall systems for the facade. The project has a large cost and is costly for air conditioning and ventilation, but it lacks an overall solution to solve multidimensional architectural problems in hot and humid climatic conditions in Vietnam.
In recent years, in Vietnam, many efforts have been made to find a direction for "green" architecture. In particular, the attention to the specific conditions of economy, culture, climate ... of each region seems to be the way to bring green buildings into life.
The climate in Vietnam is very harsh, the summer is hot, the solar radiation is big, especially in the North, there is a cold winter with high humidity. Green building development in our country must pay attention to climate factors in different regions of the country. It can be mentioned some typical climatic regions such as the climate of the East Bắc Bộ, the mountainous areas of the North, the Northern Delta region, the Lao region wind region, the Southern floodplain .
Vietnam has 54 ethnic groups, so local cultural identities are very diverse. Each ethnic group has its own traditions, cultivation methods, lifestyle ... The selection of solutions suitable to the cultural traditions, lifestyles, psychology, needs and practical capabilities of Residential communities are very important in creating an urban architecture environment. Green building development in Vietnam should pay special attention to local cultural identity issues in each region, each with its own distinctive lifestyle and architecture, so green building development needs to be developed. strategies, policies, planning solutions, construction design suitable to each region. Cultural factors are also the basis for gaining acceptance from local residents towards the practical needs of the community. The word can be widely applied, avoiding the risk of breaking traditional living practices.
Vietnam green buildings must be built in accordance with the conditions of the national economy. Vietnam is a developing country, still poor compared to many countries in the region. Green buildings in Vietnam should promote the use of local resources, aiming at simple construction solutions in accordance with the construction level of the region, easy to maintain to achieve a reasonable cost target. suitable to the income capacity of the local people. Geographical constraints have formed the circumstances of each locality, it is necessary to pay attention to this specific condition to apply green solutions and technologies suitable to economic, cultural and social conditions. . Particular attention should be paid to rural areas, the majority of the population's habitats and many indigenous values.
In short, green architecture not only brings economic, environmental and health benefits to people but also contributes positively to reducing climate change. It can be said that green architecture is a right direction, suggesting the future is very bright and very suitable for tropical countries with a developing economy like ours. In order for the green architecture model to be widely used in order to use energy economically and efficiently, we need to conduct surveys, research and experience to provide reasonable and practical mechanisms and policies. & suitable for Vietnamese conditions.